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Microscopic Toxic Black Mold Pictures
To see toxic black mold growing in homes and other buildings, please visit Mold Inspection.

 Absidia

 

At right is an enlarged mold picture of Absidia mold under a microscope taken by mold expert Dr. Michelle Medalla during her mold sample analysis. Below are two small pictures* of the Absidia mold species.

*Low power photomicrograph of Absidia in slide culture. Internodal rhizoids are not apparent here.


*Absidia in slide culture. A cup-shaped columella (long arrow) supports a spherical sporangium (short arrow). Note also the pale tan sporangiospores (arrowhead) recently released from a sporangium.

*Above mycological photos and captions are courtesy of: http://pangloss.ucsfmedicalcenter.org/Education/fung_morph/zygompage.html

 Alternaria

The dark brown spores are borne in simple or branched chains from the tips of simple dark conidiophores and are divided into several cells by transverse and vertical walls. New spores are produced by the extrusion of wall material through a pore at the tip of the previous spore. Commonly isolated from decaying plant materials; also causing plant diseases. Spores of Alternaria species are dispersed by air currents and are usually a major component of outdoor air. Holomorphs: Clathrospora, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora, Pyrenophora. Refs: Ellis 1971, 1976; Joly 1964.

Aspergillus

The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists the following Aspergillus species as all being allergens and irritants and a cause of Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis: Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Aspergillus versicolor.

Microscopic Photograph of Aspergillus species 2

Aureobasidium

Aureobasidium is a known Type I and Type III allergen that can sometimes cause infections in the human skin, nails, and eyes. The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists both Aureobasidium and Aureobasidium pullulans as an allergen and irritant, and as a cause of Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis.

Chaetomium

Chaetomium is a dematiaceous filamentous fungus found in soil, air, and plant debris. As well as being a contaminant, Chaetomium spp. are also encountered as causative agents of infections in humans. Some species are thermophilic and neurotropic in nature.

Chaetomium spp. are among the fungi causing infections wholly referred to as phaeohyphomycosis. Fatal deep mycoses due to Chaetomium atrobrunneum have been reported in an immunocompromised host. Brain abscess, peritonitis, cutaneous lesions, and onychomycosis may also develop due to Chaetomium spp.
[from http://www.doctorfungus.org ]

Cladosporium

The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists the following as the health effects of Cladospotium mold: Allergen, Irritant, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Dermatitis.

Cladosporium is a dematiaceous (pigmented) mold widely distributed in air and rotten organic material and frequently isolated as a contaminant on foods. Some species are predominant in tropical and subtropical regions. Also, some Cladosporium spp. were isolated from fish and were associated with findings of infection.

Exserohilum

Exserohilum species are common environmental molds found in soil and on plants, especially grasses. Several species have been reported as agents of phaeohyphomycosis, notably E. rostratum (= E. halodes), E. meginnisii and E. longirostratum. Clinical manifestations include mycotic keratitis, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and sinusitis in both normal and immunosuppressed patients.

 

The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists the following as the health effects of Exserohilum mold: Allergen, Irritant, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Dermatitis.

 

Fusarium

Fusarium is a filamentous fungus widely distributed on plants and in the soil. It is found in normal mycoflora of commodities, such as rice, bean, soybean, and other crops. While most species are more common at tropical and subtropical areas, some inhabit in soil in cold climates. Some Fusarium species have a teleomorphic state.

As well as being a common contaminant and a well-known plant pathogen, Fusarium species  may cause various infections in humans. Fusarium is one of the emerging causes of opportunistic mycoses.

Microsporum

Microsporum species particularly infect the hair and skin, except for Microsporum persicolor which does not infect the hair.  The pathogenesis of the infection depends on the natural reservoir of the species in such a way that the geophilic species are acquired through contact with soil, zoophilic species are transmitted from the infected animal, and direct or indirect human – to – human transmission is of concern for anthropophilic species. Infections involving the nails are rare.  Immunocompromised patients are infected as well as the otherwise healthy hosts.

Microsporum mold picture

Mucor

The U.S Government’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists the following as the health effects of Mucor: Allergen, Irritant, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Dermatitis.

Mucor is a dangerous mold that can adversely affect one's respiratory system. It is a possible cause of the dangerous mold disease zygomycosis.  For those of you who watched the very disturbing feature on the Ripley's Believe It or Not cable TV show about a man's face [eyes, nose, cheeks, and everything else between his mouth and his forehead] having been eaten away by a mold that began to grow in the man's sinus cavities, the flesh-eating mold that ate his face was actually the very unhealthy mold Mucor!

Penicillium

Penicillium spp. are occasional causes of infection in humans and the resulting disease is known generically as penicilliosis. Penicilliosis is an infection caused by Penicillium marneffei, a dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia and the southern part of China. Persons affected by penicilliosis usually have AIDS with low CD4+ cell count of typically <100 cells/cu mm. The average CD4 count at presentation is 63.5 cells/cu mm. Penicillium marneffei infections have also been reported in non-AIDS patients with hematological malignancies and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Penicillium mold species microscopic morphology

Rhinocladiella

Rhinocladiella is a cosmopolitan fungus which can be found in soil, herbaceous substrates, and decaying wood.  To date, there are only three cases of subcutaneous infection that have been reported as caused by Rhinocladiella aquaspersa.

Rhinocladiella species

Rhizopus

Rhizopus is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus frequently isolated from soil, decaying fruit and vegetables, animal feces, and old bread. Aside from being known as common contaminants, Rhizopus species are also occasional causes of serious, and often fatal, infections in humans.  Certain species are plant pathogens as well.

Rhizopus species are among the fungi causing the group of infections referred to as zygomycosis Zygomycosis is now the preferred term over mucormycosis for this angio – invasive disease.  Rhizopus arrhizus is the most common cause of zygomycosis and is followed by Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis.

Zygomycosis infection includes mucocutaneous, rhinocerebral, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and disseminated infections.  The most frequent predisposing factors for zygomycosis include diabetic ketoacidosis and immunosuppression due to various reasons, such as organ transplantation and other factors such as desferoxamine treatment, renal failure, extensive burns, trauma, and intravenous drug use which may also predispose to development of zygomycosis.  Heatstroke has been described as a risk factor for disseminated zygomycosis as well.  Contaminated adhesive tapes and wooden tongue depressors have been reported to lead to nosocomial outbreaks of zygomycosis.  Vascular invasion that causes necrosis of the infected tissue, and perineural invasion are the most frustrating features of these infections. Zygomycosis is frequently considered as fatal infection.

Rhinocelebral zygomycosis from Doctor Fungus

(Image Courtesy of www.doctorfungus.org @ 2005)

Rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae extensive involvement of the orbit and associated MRI image.

Trichoderma

 

Trichoderma species are usually considered as non – pathogenic, on the other hand, Trichoderma viride has been reported as a causative agent of pulmonary infection, peritonitis in a dialysis patient, and perihepatic infection in a liver transplant patient.  Trichoderma infections are opportunistic in nature and develop in immunocompromised patients, such as neutropenic cases and transplant patients, as well as those with chronic renal failure, chronic lung disease, or amyloidosis.  Disseminated infections due to Trichoderma have also been reported. 

NOTICE: The information provided on this website was obtained from sources believed to be accurate. The information is provided free as a public service with the specific understanding and agreement by the website visitor that the website publisher is not engaged in rendering medical or legal services. If medical or legal advice or assistance is required, the services of a competent, licensed medical doctor or attorney should be sought.


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